Buat bikin PR yaaaa??: P Silakan baca.. The kingdoms archaebacteria and eubacteria: The six kingdoms. Ciri-ciri Archaebacteria dan Eubacteria. Published on March 13, in Ciri-ciri Archaebacteria dan EubacteriaFull resolution ( × ) · Ciri-ciri. Ciri-Ciri Archaebacteria. a. bersifat prokariotik dan uniseluler, b. memiliki ukuran 0, mikrometer, c. berbentuk batang, spiral, kokus, dan berbentuk tidak tetap.
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Pyrococcus furiosus is an extremophilic species of Archaea. It can be classified as a hyperthermophile because it thrives best under extremely high srchaebacteria than those preferred of a thermophile.
Ciri-ciri Archaebacteria dan Eubacteria
The species was taken from the thermal marine sediments and studied by growing it in culture in a lab. Pyrococcus furiosus is noted for its rapid doubling time of 37 minutes under optimal conditions, meaning that every 37 minutes, the cidi of individual organisms is multiplied by 2, yielding an exponential growth curve. It appears as mostly regular cocci—meaning that it is roughly spherical—of 0.
Each organism is surrounded by a cellular envelope composed of glycoprotein, called an S-layer. This is a relatively wide range when compared to other archaea.
Growth is very slow, or nonexistent, on amino acids, organic acids, alcohols, and most carbohydrates including glucosefructoselactoseand galactose. The metabolic products of P.
The presence of hydrogen severely inhibits its growth and metabolism; this effect can be circumvented, however, by introducing sulfur into the organism’s environment. In this case, H 2 S can be produced through its metabolic processes, although no energy seems to be derived from this series of reactions. Interesting to note is xiri, while many other hyperthermophiles depend on sulfur for growth, P. Such a system could be a very early evolutionary precursor of respiratory systems in all higher organisms archaebacteriz.
A DNA polymerase was discovered in P. This DNA polymerase has strong 3′-5′ exonucleolytic activity and a template-primer preference which is characteristic of a replicative DNA polymerase, leading scientists to believe that this enzyme may be the replicative DNA polymerase of P.
Although archaea are, in general, more like cii than prokaryotes in terms of transcription, translation, and replication of their DNA, scientists have not been able to find many examples of DNA polymerases in archaea that are similar in structure to DNA polymerases of eukaryotes.
Obtaining more information about these enzymes would allow a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of DNA replication in archaea. The enzymes of Pyrococcus furiosus are extremely thermostable. As a consequence, the DNA polymerase from P. One practical application of P. It may be possible to use the enzymes of P. Enzymes from hyperthermophiles such as P. In order to make naturally derived enzymes useful in the laboratory, it is often necessary to alter their genetic makeup.
Otherwise, the naturally occurring enzymes may not be efficient in an artificially induced procedure. Although the enzymes of P. Consequently, in this case, the specific enzyme AdhA was taken from P. This allowed scientists to obtain a mutant enzyme that could function efficiently at lower temperatures and maintain productivity.
The expression of a certain gene found in P. In response to environmental stresses such as heat exposure, plants produce reactive oxygen species which can result in cell death. If these free radicals are removed, cell death can be delayed. Enzymes in plants called superoxide dismutases remove superoxide anion radicals from cells, but increasing the amount and activity of these enzymes is difficult and not the most efficient way to go about improving the durability of plants.
By introducing the superoxide reductases of P. As a result of this procedure, cell death in plants occurs less often, therefore resulting in a reduction in the severity of responses to environmental stress.
This enhances the survival of plants, making them more resistant to light, chemical, and heat stress. This study could potentially be used as a starting point to creating plants that could survive in more extreme climates on other planets such as Mars. By introducing more enzymes from extremophiles like P.
Using two hyperthermophilic species of archaea lessens the possibility of deviations having to do with temperature of the environment, essentially reducing the variables in the experimental design. Besides yielding information about the barophily of certain amino acids, the experiment also provided valuable insight into the origin of the genetic code and its organizational influences.
It was found that most of the amino acids that determined barophily were also found to be important in the organization of the genetic code.
It was also found that more polar amino acids and smaller amino acids were more likely to be barophilic. Through the comparison of these two archaea, the conclusion was reached that the genetic code was likely structured under high hydrostatic pressure, and that hydrostatic pressure was a more influential factor in determining genetic code than temperature. The research involves taking a gene from Pyrococcus furiosus and introducing into the plant Arabidopsis icri.
It was first described by Dr. Pyrococcus furiosus actually originated a new genus of archaea with its relatively recent discovery in The sequencing of the complete genome of Pyrococcus furiosus was completed in by scientists at the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute.
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The Maryland team found that the genome has 1, kilobases, coding for some 2, proteins . The name Pyrococcus means “fireball” in Greekto refer to the extremophile’s round shape and ability to grow in temperatures of around degrees Celsius. The species name furiosus means ‘rushing’ in Latinand refers to the extremophile’s doubling time and rapid swimming. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Pyrococcus furiosus Pyrococcus furiosus Scientific classification Domain: Proton reduction coupled to proton translocation”.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. Explicit use of et al. Implications for archaebactrria and enzymology”.
Hyperthermophilic Enzymes Part A.
This article includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Pyrococcus furiosus Strain Pyrolobus fumarii. Cyanidioschyzon merolae Galdieria sulphuraria Paralvinella sulfincola Halicephalobus mephisto Pompeii worm Tardigrada.
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