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Children without Childhood, Adults without Adulthood: Changing Conceptions of the Iranian Child in Postrevolutionary Iranian Textbooks — Shervin Malekzadeh Do not be afraid, therefore, of this so- called idleness. What would you think of a man who refused to sleep lest he should waste part of his life?
Many interviewees ex- of d ies pressed a great affection, even longing, ava,e the classroom lessons of their childhood. Research for this study was carried out as Indeed, archive curators working in of their education, replacing the recitation of the Ministry of Education describe how former mainstream ideology with their own sentiments students have come from around the world to and dabestn. Yet these former students remember against which daily life can be measured and an idyllic childhood, despite the seriousness benchmarked.
They by defining and reproducing a shared cultural did so in part by reinterpreting the content nation.
Cultivating Good Cit- ultimate goal of the postrevolutionary program of so- 4. Text- cialization found inside the texts. Fatsi current postrevolutionary educational sys- 6. All evidence presented in this article is based on religious and political leaders. Constant changes to the curriculum fo- ing the postrevolutionary period — This study, by contrast, seeks to ex- not without consequence.
Aval e Dabestan
Ordinary Iranians do not blindly Writing against the general consensus accept or internalize the ideology of the state of scholarly literature, this essay demonstrates but instead resist, reinterpret, or even ignore that the politics of schooling did not end with fqrsi of the postrevolutionary project taught the Revolution. Yet they often do so using cate ideology through schooling have been the language, practices, and formal procedures hampered by the inability of the state to con- of dominant groups.
In other words, although solidate a coherent notion of citizenship in the the participation of Iranian children in decon- Islamic Republic.
There exists a study not yet available in English by discussion of how IRI educational policies are in fact ing, i. School Text- terns determined by the rules of the game associated no kyokasho media: Isuramu to nashonarizumu no books and Historical Memory in Post-revolutionary with modern nationalism and state formation.
Journal of the Asso- cifically, state leaders in Iran since the late nineteenth flict between Islam and Nationalism Tokyo: Iwanami ciation for the Study of Ethnicity and Nationalism 6 century have sought to inculcate through schooling Shoten, There have been eleven ministers of education of binding state and society together. Like all mod- the Revolution represents a complete break with sincethree in the past six years alone — Schooling falls into the latter identity, the textbooks of the Islamic Republic teach madinejad — present.
Of the three gory or framework tying together state, society, and powers of the world. Cul- lum, see M. A useful summary of 32 Education and the Politics of National Tahlili az zendegi-ye roozmari-ye danesh amuzeshi: Society and Culture Publishing, ing in Fragile Situations: See also Patricia J. Elizabeth Warnock Fernea Austin: Around the Themes in Textbooks same period representations of childhood, once A number of themes related to the concept nearly svale from the textbooks, enter into the of childhood can be detected from a survey curriculum as a coherent and natural experi- of nearly three decades of first- second- and ence that predates and informs the transition to e third- grade Persian textbooks published by the adulthood.
Farsi Avale Dabestan Benaveeseem 1st Grade Learn Persian Language | eBay
The first theme braces childhood as a generalized experience, Co deals with how textbooks idealize the environ- shared equally by Iranian children of all gen- f ie so tu d ments in which children learn. For most of the ders and backgrounds.
At the same time, text- S iahistory of the Islamic Republic, textbook au- book authors attach particularistic qualities to As u th So he thors prominently featured the countryside as the transition from childhood to adulthood, de- dabestann dt aa an exemplary place for dabeshan. More than a picting the process of growing up as a distinctly ric Af st complement to the classroom, rural life pre- gendered experience. The attention now given Ea le M idd sented a vital alternative to the authority of the to the concept of childhood and the related ef- classroom.
Today, with Iran a largely urbanized fort by textbook authors to draw distinctions be- country, representations of the education of tween the ways in which boys and girls become children are more likely to take place in a sabestan men and women is unprecedented in the history and in a aval setting. In the sec- and labor markets — are artificially extending ond- and third- grade Persian textbooks of the the experience of childhood today. With few period — 97, young Palestinians act as prox- prospects available for employment, more and ies for the idealized child- as- adult.
Adulthood is the default condi- and refashion the contours of childhood than tion for these dbaestan. Against the imperative of and offers young Iranians lessons on how to live work and finding a spouse, textbook materials lives as righteous adults through resistance to are poor rivals in shaping the hearts and minds injustice. The farxi draws heavily from the insights University Press, Closer to Iran, I am deeply in- Wolfen- mony to demonstrate that frsi Mexicans afrsi not of Muslim women to rigid patriarchal and religious sohn Center for Development at the Brookings Insti- blindly embrace the new regime but negotiated their structures opens up opportunities for education and tution, Revolution and the Negotiation of thropology 16 Rule in Modern Mexico, ed.
Gilbert Joseph and Daniel Romance of Resistance: University of Arizona Press, Women: Accord- ties such as playing with toys and communi- ing to Iranian sociologist Mohammad Rezaei, ties excluded from the lives of dabestna. Difference Shervin Malekzadeh Postrevolutionary Iranian Textbooks — Changing Conceptions of qvale Iranian Child in recent years have seen the transformation of from adults proves to be the critical variable in postrevolutionary schooling from an ideologi- defining childhood.
Childhood assumes that young people cial advancement of young Iranians. This period of blissful as imperative to future success, university edu- ignorance is what Jean-Jacques Rousseau refers cation itself is not compulsory. Such capacity to live a personal and professional life an approach draws a distinction between the separate from his or her parents.
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Childhood is Defining Childhood and Adulthood thus also a social category through which we Neil Postman memorably observed that a defini- faris the biological condition of chil- tion is the start of an argument, not the end of dren. There exist separate and conflicting religious, Barbara Foxley ; repr. Dut- Comparative Education Review 48 This is not to say that childhood is free teen for boys. As citizens, Iranian children acquire from trouble, as the wartime experiences of the Third See Rezaei, Tahlili az zendegi-ye roozmari.
In Iran, schooling is compulsory until the age of recently raised from fifteen. The definition dabewtan rests fourteen, or the first year of high school, but this is a passport, open a bank account, and formally enter upon the expectation that childhood is a carefree pe- formality as enforcement is weak to nonexistent.
There are exceptions to this rule. During my field- ern phenomenon now disappearing as a result of work in Iran I would hear, anecdotally, how the lack the advent of mass media, especially television, see of programming options on state-run media caused his The Disappearance of Childhood ; repr.
As u th So he n dt aa ric Af st Ea le M idd as a concept that is both universal and histori- privileged few into a public resource available, cally contingent. Over time, this pos- farsk throughout time and between different sibility became an expectation. These needs are until the mid- to late s, with adulthood the cross- culturally stable and so provide the empir- default condition of textbook characters.
Ketab farsi-aval-dabestan-dahe – [PDF Document]
The the catalyst for the emergence of childhood. This trend children fig. The shift to and back covers of the first- second- and third- mass schooling via a nationalized school system grade primers are void of political message or transformed formal education in Iran from its sloganeering.
While the front covers remain previous status as a private good enjoyed by a innocuous during the entire postrevolutionary Harry Hendrick, Children, Childhood, and English The pivotal role played by schooling in the concep- Cambridge Univer- tualization of childhood as a universalized category is earliest scholars to consider childhood as a category sity Press,9. In his most famously controversial claim a national school system under Reza Shah r.
See Marashi, Nationalizing Iran, 86 — From left to right: Back cover, Farsi sevom-e dabistan Farsi: Previously left that adults must protect and preserve children blank, the back covers of the editions of from harm and danger.
The new cover shows the primers include a photographic image of young people performing all sorts of dangerous two groups of children, male and female, con- activities, like playing with knives, touching a verging into a single mass. The young girls are hot pot, or jumping into a fire. The written mes- panied by images of children riding bikes, play- sage on the back cover makes the purpose of ing soccer, and jogging as a group fig.
The purity and honesty, with gainful knowledge, edition encourages children to adopt better hy- with hard work, sacrifice, thrift, independence, giene with the message: These authors started to establish clear boundaries be- bubbles transform into flowers as they rise up tween the idiosyncratic activities of children and out of the frame.
Back cover, Farsi sevom- e dabestan Farsi: Blackwell,3 — Back cover, Farsi aval-e dabestan Farsi: Ministry of Education, Islamic Repub- Tehran: Back cover, Farsi dovom-e dabestan Farsi: Co f Third Grade Tehran: So he n dt aa ric Af st Ea le M idd Figure 4: Front cover, Farsi dovom-e dabestan Farsi: Textbooks also begin to include an image of Ayatollah Khomeini as a grandfatherly Country and City: Well into the s, the textbooks Khomeini was mostly absent in a kindly grandfather.