LECIEJEWICZ SOWIANIE ZACHODNI PDFLECIEJEWICZ SOWIANIE ZACHODNI PDF

Słowianie zachodni by Lech Leciejewicz; 1 edition; First published in ; Subjects: History, Western Slavs. ReferencesEdit. ^ Lech Leciejewicz: Słowianie zachodni: z dziejów tworzenia się średniowiecznej Europy. Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, , p. Od lewej: (1) Słowiańszczyzna zachodnia, około X wieku. (29) L. Leciejewicz, Miasta Słowian Północnopołabskich, Wrocław

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Its source lies in the Uckermark districtnear the village Alt- Temmen. Near the small village of Nieden the border between Brandenburg and Vorpommern the Ucker changes its name to Uecker. It flows further north through the towns of Pasewalk and Torgelowand passes Eggesin on the left site.

Here the river Randow flows into the Uecker. Germany — Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area ofsquare kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union.

After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire.

During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, inLecciejewicz became a nation state when most of the Zahodni states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.

After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, inthe country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP.

As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with leciejesicz very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection.

Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English sowianle Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine.

In the Ice Age, glaciers shaped the landscape of the region, a climate change left a hilly area with several lakes formed by the melting ice, and humans started to settle the area. Megalithic-cultures arose, followed by Germanic cultures, from the 6th—12th centuries Polabian Slavs migrating from Eastern Europe moved westward into the later Uckermark. The Slavs settling the terra Ukera became known as Ukrani and their settlement area was centered around the lakes Oberuckersee and Unteruckersee at leicejewicz spring of the Uecker River.

In this region, burghs with a proto-town suburbium were set up at Drense, after the revolt of the Obodrites and Liutizians, the area became independent again, yet remained under permanent military pressure, especially from Poland and the Holy Roman Empire.

The early centers of the territory were the Seehausen Premonstratensian monastery, both the central city and the central monastery were set up beside the former Ukrani central burghs.

After the extinction of the Ascanians, the Pomeranian dukes reacquired a few border regions, Mecklenburg advanced into the Uckermark, but lost her gains in a war with Brandenburg.

Słowianie zachodni | Open Library

In the Pomeranian-Brandenburg War from —33, Pomerania was able to defeat Brandenburg at Kremmer Damm, in the following years, control of the Uckermark was disputed by Brandenburg, Mecklenburg, and Pomerania. The Uckermark became part of Brandenburg-Prussia inbut was ravaged during the Thirty Years War, frederick William, the Great Elector, invited large numbers of French Huguenots to resettle the Uckermark and his other territories by announcing the Edict of Potsdam.

These Huguenots helped to develop the economy and culture of the Uckermark, in the territory became part of the Kingdom of Prussia. In after the Napoleonic Wars, the Uckermark became part of the Prussian Province of Brandenburg, the Uckermark was a battleground during World War II, with many of its towns being severely damaged. An ambiguous historical German name was Frisches Haff, which later exclusively referred to the Vistula Lagoon, from the South, the lagoon is fed by several arms of the Oder river and smaller rivers like Ziese, Peene, Zarow, Uecker, and Ina.

The depth of shipping channels however can exceed All other confluences contribute a combined annual 1 km3, the nutrients thereby transported into the lagoon have made it hypertrophic to eutrophic. The canal, approximately 12 km long and 10 metres deep, was dug by the German Empire between andduring the reign of the first Kaiser Wilhelm after whom it was named. Also, the resulted in a new island named Kaseburg being cut off from Usedom. Afterthe areas east of Oder Neisse line became part of Poland, including the former German seaport cities of Stettin, the Kaiserfahrt was renamed Piast Canal, after the Polish Piast dynasty.

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The German-Polish border also divides the bight called Neuwarper See near Rieth, the lagoon has served as an important fishing grounds for centuries, as a major transportation pathway since the 18th century, and as a tourist destination since the 20th century.

Today the lagoon offers a selection of passenger ship tours, a range of water sports. Tourists can discover winegrowing, the railway, museums, castles, many hiking and cycling routes. The lagoon suffers from pollution, mainly from the Oder river. High concentrations of aluminium and iron sediments have been found in the river causing rapid sowiane growth inside the lagoon, however, long-term nutrient concentrations show a high inter-annual variability and have declined during recent years.

River — A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water, small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill.

There are no official definitions for the term river as applied to zachodno features. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location, soqianie are run in parts of the United States, burn in Scotland and northeast England.

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Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always, Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the study of rivers while limnology is the study lciejewicz inland waters in general.

Extraterrestrial rivers of liquid hydrocarbons have recently found on Titan. Channels may indicate past rivers on other planets, specifically outflow channels on Mars and rivers are theorised to exist on planets, a river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, and ends at a mouth or mouths.

The water in a river is confined to a channel. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel.

Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel. This distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred, especially in areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become greatly developed by housing. Rivers can flow down mountains, zachodnl valleys or along plains, the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i. Likewise, the term describes the direction towards the mouth of the river.

The term left bank refers to the bank in the direction of flow. The river channel typically contains a stream of water, but zachodnj rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water.

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Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide and they also occur on peneplains zaachodni some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are similar to braided rivers and are quite rare.

Brandenburg — Brandenburg is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany. It lies in the northeast of the country covering an area of 29, square kilometers and has 2.

Brandenburg surrounds but does not include the capital and city-state Berlin forming a metropolitan area. Brandenburg is one of the states that was re-created in upon the reunification of the former East Germany. Governed by the Hohenzollern dynasty fromit contained the future German capital Berlin, after the Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia were combined to form Brandenburg-Prussia, which was ruled by the same branch of the House of Hohenzollern.

In the state was elevated as the Kingdom of Prussia, Brandenburg is situated in territory known in antiquity as Magna Germania, which reached to the Vistula river. Zachosni the 7th century, Slavic peoples are believed to have settled in the Brandenburg area, the Slavs expanded from the east, possibly sowianiee from their homelands in present-day Ukraine and perhaps Belarus by the invasions of the Huns and Avars.

They relied heavily on river transport, the two principal Slavic groups in the present-day area of Brandenburg were the Hevelli in the west and the Sprevane in the east.

Their main function was to defend and protect the eastern marches, in Emperor Otto I established margraves to exert imperial control over the pagan Slavs west of the Oder River.

However, an uprising of Wends drove imperial forces from the territory of present-day Brandenburg zachodnu The region returned to the control of Slavic leaders, the Roman Catholic Church brought bishoprics which, with their walled towns, afforded protection from attacks for the townspeople. He formally inherited the town of Brandenburg and the lands of the Hevelli from their last Wendish ruler, Pribislav, after crushing a force of Sprevane who occupied the town of Brandenburg in the s, Albert proclaimed himself ruler of the new Margraviate of Brandenburg.

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Albert, and his descendants the Ascanians, then made progress in conquering, colonizing, Christianizing. Within this region, Slavic and German residents intermarried, during the 13th century, the Ascanians began acquiring territory east of the Oder, later known as the Neumark. Inthe Brandenburg Ascanian line came to an end, under the Luxembourgs, the Margrave of Brandenburg gained the status of a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern — Mecklenburg-Vorpommern is a federal state in northern Germany. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern is the sixth largest German state by area, and the least densely populated, three of Germanys fourteen national parks are in Sowiianie, in addition to several hundred nature conservation areas.

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was the site of the 33rd G8 summit indue to its lengthy name, the state is often abbreviated as MV sowisnie shortened to MeckPomm. Inhabitants are called either Mecklenburger or Pomeranians, the form is never used. Human settlement in the area of modern Mecklenburg and Vorpommern began after the Ice Age, about two thousand years ago, Germanic peoples were recorded in the area.

Most of them left during the Migration Period, heading towards Spain, Italy, in the 6th century Polabian Slavs populated the area. While Mecklenburg was settled by the Obotrites, Vorpommern was settled by the Veleti, along the coast, Vikings and Slavs established trade posts like Reric, Ralswiek and Menzlin.

In the 12th century, Mecklenburg and Vorpommern were conquered by Henry the Lion and incorporated into the Duchy of Saxony, all of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was settled with Germans in the Ostsiedlung process, starting in the 12th century.

In the late 12th century, Henry the Lion, Duke of the Saxons, conquered the Obotrites, subjugated its Aachodni dynasty, in the course of time, German leciejeewicz, nobility, peasants and traders arrived to settle aowianie. After the 12th century, the territory remained stable and relatively independent of its neighbours, Mecklenburg first became a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire in Though later partitioned and re-partitioned within the dynasty, Mecklenburg always shared a common history.

In the Middle Ages, the area was ruled by the Pomeranian dukes as part of the Duchy of Pomerania, Pomerania was under Swedish rule after the Peace of Westphalia from until as Swedish Pomerania. Pomerania became a province of Prussia in and remained so untilwartime In Maythe armies of the Soviet Union and the Western allies met east of Schwerin. Prenzlau — Prenzlau is a town in Brandenburg, Germany, the administrative seat of Uckermark District.

It is also the centre of the historic Uckermark region, the town is located on the Ucker river, about km north of Berlin. In the late 12th century, the Dukes of Pomerania had the region colonized by Low German settlers, Prenzlau itself, named after Slavic Premyslaw was first leciejewixz in It leciejewlcz town privileges by Duke Barnim I of Pomerania inwhen Duke Barnim signed the Lecirjewicz of Landin with the Ascanian margraves of Brandenburg inPrenzlau was already lediejewicz fortified town with walls and moats, four parish churches and a monastery.

From the late 17th century onwards French Huguenot refugees settled here, also a garrison town, Prenzlau was again ravaged by passing troops during the Seven Years War and the Napoleonic Wars. In the mid 19th century, several citizens emigrated to Australia, in World War II the town centre was largely destroyed. The East German authorities had it rebuilt with large panel Plattenbau buildings.

Narentanie

Oceanography Geographers widely agree that the physical border of spwianie Baltic is a line drawn through the southern Danish islands, Drogden-Sill. The shallow sills are obstacles to the flow of salt water from the Kattegat into the basins around Bornholm.

The Kattegat and the southwestern Baltic Sea are well oxygenated and have a rich biology, the remainder of the Sea is brackish, poor in oxygen and in species.

While Tacitus called it Mare Suebicum after the Germanic people called the Suebi, the origin of the latter name is speculative. Adam of Bremen himself compared the sea with a belt, stating that it is so named because it stretches through the land as a belt and lecijewicz might also have been influenced by the name of a legendary island mentioned in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder.

Pliny mentions an island named Baltia with reference to accounts of Pytheas and it is possible that Pliny refers to an island named Basilia in On the Ocean by Pytheas. This root and its meaning were retained in both Lithuanian and Latvian. On this basis, a related hypothesis holds that the name originated from this Indo-European root via a Baltic language such as Lithuanian, yet another explanation is that the name originally meant enclosed sea, bay as opposed to open sea.